Gaz de schiste : le MIT revoit à la baisse les émanations de méthane

methane  ges  mit  howarth

Une étude du MIT (Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA), vient s’opposer à la thèse que l’exploitation du gaz de schiste émettrait plus de gaz à effet de serre (GES) que le charbon.

Rappelons que le chercheur Rob Howarth émettait l’hypothèse que la fracturation hydraulique pourrait engendrer la fuite de méthane (CH4) dans l’atmosphère, gaz beaucoup plus nocif pour l’environnement que le dioxyde de carbone (CO2). Cette étude venait s’opposer à l’idée que l’exploitation du gaz de schiste présentait l’avantage d’émettre moins de CO2 que le charbon.

Le MIT vient contrebalancer la thèse d’Howarth. Cette nouvelle étude montre qu’il y a bel et bien des émissions de méthane au cours de l’exploitation du gaz de schiste. En se basant sur des données empiriques et diverses simulations, les chercheurs du MIT, Francis O’Sullivan et Sergeï Paltsev, on montré que les fuites potentielles totales de méthane peuvent s’élever à 0,5% de la production d’un puits, alors que M. Howarth parlait de 3 à 4 %.

L’étude du MIT explique également que M. Howarth présumait à tort que la totalité du méthane dégagé par la fracturation hydraulique s’en allait dans l’atmosphère. En effet, l’industrie en brûle et en récupère une grande partie explique O’Sullivan et Paltsev. La manœuvre du brûlage transforme le méthane en CO2, environ 25 fois moins néfaste pour l’environnement.

Cette pratique obligatoire dans plusieurs Etats des Etats-Unis font dire aux chercheurs du MIT que les émanations de méthane sont environ sept fois moins importante que le présumait M. Howarth : 35 tonnes de méthane par puits dans le shale Barnett (Texas, USA), au lieu de 252.

Selon cette étude du MIT, avec cette révision à la baisse des émanations de méthane, l’exploitation du gaz de schiste devient nettement préférable au charbon, pour ce qui regarde les émissions de gaz à effet de serre.

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